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Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute

Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice plants Unit

Herbal Garden Development

The collection of herbals in the Institute harbours 1,200 taxa and covers an area of about 10 acres. It includes many educational features, and considered to be one of the best herbal gardens in the country. The different features/ sections of the herbal garden include the following :- Special groups of herbals, Herbal of the week, Medicinal- arboretum, Medicinal –shrubbery, Succulent garden, Model of sacred grove, Aromatic plant garden, Systematic garden of herbals, Collection of RET species, Piper germplasm, Ginger germplasm etc. The herbal garden also includes collections of Rauvolfia spp., Strobilanthus spp., Asparagus spp., Acrotrema spp., Phyllanthus spp., Sida spp. The herbal garden attracts a lot of visitors and it helps them to familiarize with the herbals, its growing requirements, propagation, medicinal utility etc.

Conservation of Coscinium fenestratum- a rare herbal species of the Western Ghats

Coscinium fenestratum Colebr. (Menispermaceae) is a woody climber having yellowish stem (revealed on peeling the outer skin) and therefore it is known as ‘Maramanjal’ in Malayalam (Maram-Wood, Manja- Yellowish). Mature stem of the plant is used in 62 Ayurvedic formulations, including medicines to cure eye diseases. The bioactive principle of the species is the alkaloid ‘berberine’ which possesses antiseptic property. This species is not familiar to many due to scarcity of its occurrence in the wild, and probably therefore, mature plants of the species (male and female separate) growing luxuriantly in the herbal garden of JNTBGRI, have become a curiosity to the visitors. Interestingly, regeneration of the species is also taking place in the garden by nocturnal animals, which eat its fruits.

At present, C. fenestratum is facing gene-erosion (loss of genotypes) due to over-exploitation from the wild, particularly for pharmaceutical use. Over-extraction of the species is being continued in the Western Ghats, ever since the industrial production of Ayurvedic medicines about 50-60 years back. The plant takes about 15 years to attain maturity for flowering and fruiting. Since mature plants are collected irrationally from the forests for selling out, number of plants which can reproduce become scarce and this has adversely affected natural regeneration of the species. Considering the rarity of C. fenestratum, it is included in the list of rare and threatened plants of the world, published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).

The living collection of the species serves as seed source for strengthening the resource base of the species. The programmes include distribution of seedlings to general public for growing in their home yards, and to the Kerala Forest Department for reintroduction in its habitat. The seeds obtained each year from the plants were also used for standardizing seed-germination, mass multiplication through tissue culture and cryo-preservation at JNTBGRI. It is worth mentioning that seed-bank group of the division has standardized a method for seed germination of the species giving 80% success rate, this finding is important with respect to conservation of the species , since it’s seeds show poor germination.

Conservation-Education

Public participation and support are essential for success of any conservation programmes. Conservation – education and extension activities possess a major role in achieving conservation of medicinal plants. Conservation of wild species is generally most effective, when there is a clear and specific need for the material. Therefore, building up public support by projecting the utility of medicinal plants in health care will be useful and appropriate for their sustainable utilization. Development of conservation- education programmes suited to different target groups – students, farmers, women etc for creating awareness among them to grow/cultivate medicinal plants is useful. In order to serve this purpose, JNTBGRI has developed several features and established a conservation – education model herbal garden- the Itty Achuthan Vaidyan’s Garden and a Model Medicinal Plant Garden at JNTBGRI.

a. Itty Achuthan Vaidyan’s Garden

By developing Itty Achuthan Vaidyan’s garden, JNTBGRI has tried to project the traditional association of physicians, herbals and patients existed in the past, which has almost vanished from the present day society. Itty Achuthan was a famous Ayurvedic physician lived about 300 years back in Kerala.He belonged to an ancient family of Ayurvedic physicians of Kodakarappally village near Shertalay in Alapuzha District and served as major collaborator of the classical work on medicinal plants of Kerala – ‘Hortus Malabaricus’ – published during the period, 1678 – 1703 by van Rheede, the then Dutch Governor of Cochin.Un-precedented floods and landslides of the years 1992 and ’93 in southern Kerala had detrimentally affected the herbal garden of JNTBGRI. Many valuable collections of herbals and attractive features like Centella lawn, Succulent garden, etc. were washed away in the floods. The reclamation works such as construction of boundary wall and refilling the eroded area with soil had begun just few months after the 1993 floods. Even after completing these civil works, the real loss was much evident in this part of the herbal garden, and felt that recasting the area in a suitable manner is a hard job and need cute planning. We were very particular that the developmental activities should blend with natural settings of the area. The developmental work of the Itty Achuthan Vaidyan’s Garden had been started on 1st February 1996. At the outset, landscaping the area and development of the following appropriate milieus for growing herbals were carried out – aquatic, marshy, open-moist and woodland. A major achievement accomplished as part of landscaping the area was the development of water bodies in the garden – a stream and two ponds – and succeeded in getting perennial water supply to the water bodies from Chittar river by just gravitational force through underground by pipe. It served as habitat for fishes, frogs and its predators – reptiles and birds. As part of providing a ‘period – room’ of ancient past to the garden, several architectural features were incorporated in the garden, which include ‘Kottyambalam’ style entrance, boundary wall made of clay – adorned with wall lamps, Kalvilakku, Thulasithara etc.

b. Model Medicinal Plant Garden (MMPG)

The MMPG, comprise an area of about 2 ha., located in a semi evergreen forest patch of JNTBGRI Field surveys for enumerating the naturally occurring medicinal plants of the site revealed that the area comprise about 50 medicinal plants species. The medicinal plant resource of the garden has been enriched by introducing about 40 herbal species which blend with local flora. A garden trail has also been developed with least disturbance to the vegetation of the garden. The 300m long trail, which starts from the Itty Achuthan Vaidyan’s garden passes through the forest patch, and ends near the guest house of JNTBGRI. On walking along the trail, a visitor can familiarize with herbals right in their natural habitat. Moreover, the visitors get an opportunity to watch the dynamic nature of the ecosystem. About 20 models/images of conservation-education value and about 30 educational labels were developed in the MMPG. A ’hut’ and a model home yard herbal garden in its premises are the most attractive educational displays developed in the garden. A model – ‘Traditional Vaidya’- in the posture of checking ‘Nadi’ of a patient and impressions of herbals on the walls of the ‘hut’ are some of the other educational features of the MMPG.

Development of National Field Gene Bank of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

Government of India decided to launch National Gene Bank programme for the conservation and sustainable utilization of traditionally known medicinal and aromatic plants used in various Indian systems of treatments. JNTBGRI has recognized as one of the nodal agencies to implement this programme in 1993 to conserve select plant genetic resources of medicinal species from the Peninsular India and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands. The degree of endemism and genetic diversity found among the medicinal species of the Western Ghats and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands has a key role in the national wealth of our country in future decades. However, economic evaluation of several medicinal endemics and their related lesser-known species of the Western Ghats and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands has not been carried out so far. Unlike the cultivars, most of the medicinal species are wild in origin and their overexploitation for industrial purpose has led to considerable genetic erosion and species loss from their natural habitats. This has much relevance to the condition prevalent in India where the human population has been crossed 1.2 billion and it highlights the urgent need to prevent the genetic erosion and conservation of wilderness in terms of modern conservation methods.

Development of field gene bank of selected species is one of the best methods of ex-situ conservation, especially because of low technological inputs required for establishing the facility. The field gene banks possess the advantage of observing and studying genetic variation existing in the gene pool of the species and facilitate utilization of best available genotypes of the species for medicinal purpose and /or as source of genetic material for crop improvement. In Kerala, field gene banks of selected medicinal and aromatic plants have been established at the Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute and Kotakkal AryaVaidya Sala with the support of DBT, Govt. of India. The FGB at. JNTBGRI harbours 304 accessions of 27 species. Germplasm representation of 120 species from the Andaman – Nicobar Archipelago is another hallmark of the field gen bank. Nineteen accessions of 9 species from various regions of the Peninsular India introduced at field gene bank have been received IC numbers from NBPGR. The details of the species and accessions introduced at field gene bank are given below:

Name of species
Accessions
Abrus precatorius L. 
4
Adhatoda vasica Nees. 
11
Aegle marmelos Corr.
4
Aloe vera L.
7
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
15
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettsl.
9
Centella asiatica Urb..
16
Cissus quadrangularis L.
20
Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith
24
Desmodium gangeticum DC.
7
Elephantopus scaber L.
16
Geophila reniformis D. Don.
3
Glycosmis pentaphylla Corr.
16
Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.
20
Murraya koenigii Spr.
11
Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham)Mabb.
5
Ophiorrhiza mungos L.
7
Pellionia heyneana Wedd.
12
Piper longum L.
10
Plumbago zeylanica L.
13
Psuedarthria viscida W. & A.
7
Gloriosa superb L.
11
Adhatoda beddoemi C.B.Clarke
11
Coscinium fenastratum (Gaertner)
Colebr.
5
Trichopus zeylanicus ssp.travancoricus
Burkill ex Narayanan
9
Anaphyllum wightii Schott
14
Rauvolfia serpentina L
17

Collections from Andaman Nicobar Islands

Name of species Family Distribution
Actephila excels (Dalz.) Muell.-
Arg. var. javanica (Miq.)
Pax & Hoffm.
Euphorbiaceae Andaman – Nicobar Islands, Indo-China, Malesia
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Rutaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast
Asia, Malesia, Tropical Africa, United States
Aglaonema nicobaricum Hook.f. Araceae Nicobar Islands*
Anaxagorea luzonensis A.Gray Annonaceae Andaman Islands, Malesia
Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour.)
Merr.
Ancistrocladaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Southeast Asia, Malesia
Ardisia elliptica Thunb. Myrsinaceae Andaman Islands, Indian subcontinent, Malesia
Areca triandra Roxb. ex Buch. –
Ham.
Arecaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, Malesia
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indo-Malesia
Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Euphorbiaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, Eastern
Himalaya, Southeast Asia, Myanmar, Malesia
Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Spreng. Barringtoniaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Sub-continent,
Southeast Asia, Malesia, Australia, tropical
Africa
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Caesalpiniaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, South Asia
Calamus andamanicus Kurz Arecaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Calamus longisetus Griff. Arecaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Calamus viminalis Willd. Arecaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, , Northeast India,
Southeast Asia, Malesia
Calophyllum inophyllum L. Clusiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Old & New world Tropics
Camellia kissi Wall. Theaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, Eastern
Himalaya, China, Indo-China
Canarium euphyllum Kurz Burseraceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Caryota mitis Lour. Arecaceae Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Southeast Asia,
Malesia
Canarium euphyllum Kurz Burseraceae Nicobar Islands*
Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb. Oleaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indo-Malesian
Chrysophyllum sp. Sapotaceae Andaman Islands
Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. Lauraceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent
Cissus quadrangularis L.
Vitaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Sub-continent,
Malesia, Middle-east, Southwest Africa
Cordia dichotoma G.Forst. Boraginaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Malesia, Southeast
Asia
Corypha macropoda Linden ex Kurz Arecaceae Andaman Islands*
Costus speciosus (Koen.) J. L. Sm. Zingiberaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Southeast Asia, Malesia
Crateva religiosa Forst.f. Capparaceae Andaman – Nicobar Islands, Indian Sub-continent,
China, Malesia
Cycas rumphii Miq. Cycadaceae Andaman Islands, Sri Lanka
Cynometra iripa Kostel. Caesalpiniaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent, Malesia,
North Australia
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees Poaceae Andaman Islands, Indian subcontinent, Malesia
Dillenia andamanica C. E.Parkinson Dillanaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands
Dehaasia kurzii King ex Hook. f. Lauraceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Dinochloa scandens (Blume ex Nees)
Kuntze
Poaceae Andaman – Nicobar Islands, Southeast Asia
Diospyros andamanica (Kurz) Bakh.
Ebenaceae Andaman Islands, Southeast Asia
Diospyros montana Roxb. Ebenaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Malesia to Australia
Diospyros pilosiuscula G.Don Ebenaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Southeast Asia, Malesia
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco)
Blanco
Dipterocarpaceae Andaman Islands, Southeast Asia, Malesia
Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G.Don Dipterocarpaceae Andaman Islands, Southeast Asia
Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb. Dracaenaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Sub-continent
Dysoxylum andamanicum King Meliaceae Andaman Islands*
Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. Elaeocarpaceae Andaman Islands, Indo – Malesia
Entada rheedii Spreng. Mimosaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Malesia
Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. Araceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats, Malesia
Eulophia andamanensis Reichb. f. Orchidaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Southeast Asia, Malesia
Fagraea racemosa Jack Loganiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Sub-continent,
Malesia
Ficus hispida L. f. Moraceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Malesia to Australia
Freycinetia insignis Blume Pandanaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Glycosmis mauritiana (Lam.) Tanaka
var. andamanensis (V. Naray.) B.C.
Stone
Rutaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Glycosmis pilosa Naray. Rutaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Malvaceae Tropical East Africa, Introduced by Britishers
in Andaman Islands
Hopea helferi (Dyer) Brandis
Dipterocarpaceae Andaman Islands, Southeast Asia
Hornstedtia fenzlii (Kurz) K. Schum. Zingiberaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb. Myristicaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Southeast Asia, Malesia
Illigera appendiculata Blume Hernandiaceae Andaman Island, Myanmar, Malesia
Jasminum cordifolium Wall. &
G. Don
Oliaceae Western Ghats & Andaman Islands*
Knema andamanica (Warb.) W.J.de Wilde
Myristicaceae Andaman Islands*
Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.) Mart. Aracaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Korthalsia rogersii Becc. Aracaceae Andaman Islands*
Lagerstroemia hypoleuca Kurz.
Lythraceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Leea guineensis G. Don  Leeaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, Malesia
Licuala peltata Roxb. ex Buch. –
Ham.
Aracaceae Andaman-Nicobar islands, Northeast India,
Myanmar, Malesia
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell.-
Arg.
Euphorbiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Southeast Asia, Malesia to Australia
Mangifera andamanica King Anacardiaceae Andaman Islands*
Mangifera camptoserma Pierre
Anacardiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Mangifera griffithi Hook. f.
Anacardiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Tropical Asia
Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. Anacardiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Northeast India,
Malesia
Manilkara littoralis (Kurz) Dubard Sapotaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Mapania kurzii C. B. Clarke Cyperaceae Andaman Island, Malesia
Melastoma malabathricum L. Melastomataceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Southeast Asia
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex
Pierre
Magnoliaceae Andaman Islands, Indo-Malesia, Southeast Asia
Mimusops elengi L. Sapotaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent, Malesia
Musa acuminata Colla  Musaceae South Asia
Myristica elliptica Wall. ex Hook.
f. & Thomson
Myristicaceae Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Myxopyrum smilacifolium (Wall.) Blume Oleaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Southeast Asia
Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. Ochnaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, Southeast
Asia
Pandanus andamanensium Kurz Pandanaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex
Du Roi

 

 
Pandanaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent
Parishia insignis Hook. f. Anacardiaceae Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Malesia
Phoenix paludosa Roxb. Arecaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Southeast
Asia, Malesia
Pinanga andamanensis Becc. Aracaceae Andaman Islands*
Pinanga manii Becc. Arecaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Piper betle L. Piperaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands (wild status), Malesia,
Indian Subcontinent
Piper ribesioides Wall. Piperaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Malesia,
Piper sarmantosum Roxb. Piperaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, Malesia
Planchonia valida (Blume) Blume Lecythidaceae Andaman Islands, Southeast Asia
Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don Podocarpaceae Andaman Islands, Northeast India, China, Malesia
Polyalthia jenkensii (Hook.f.&
Thomson) Hook. f.& Thomson
Annonaceae Andaman Islands, northeast India, Indo-china,
Malesia
Pometia pinnata J.R.& G.Frost Sapindaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Fabaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats, Indo-Malesian
Psychotria andamanica Kurz Rubiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R. Br. Sterculiaceae Andaman- Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent
Pterocarpus dalbergioides DC. Fabaceae Andaman Islands*
Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd.
Sterculiaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent
Rhopaloblaste augusta (Kurz) H. E.
Moor
Arecaceae Nicobar Islands*
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd. Fabaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent
Sarcostigma kleinii Wight & Arn. Icacinaceae Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, Malesia
Schefflera venulosa (Wight &
Arn.) Harms.
Araliaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China
Spathoglottis plicata Blume Orchidaceae Great Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Sphenodesme involucrata (C. Presl.)
B. L. Rob.
Verbenaceae Andaman Islands, Indian Subcontinent, Malesian
Strobilanthes glandulosa Kurz Acanthaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Strychnos andamanensis A. W. Hill Loganiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Tabernaemontana crispa L. Apocynaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Terminalia bialata (Roxb.) Steud. Combretaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Terminalia procera Roxb. Combretaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands*
Ternstroemia wallichiana Ridl.
Ternstroemiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Southeast Asia, Malesia
Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.
Acanthaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Myanmar (Tropics
under cultivation)
Tetracera sarmentosa (L.) Vahl.ssp.
andamanica
(Hoogl.)Hoogl.
Dilleniaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Northeast India
Thottea sp. Aristolochiaceae Nicobar Islands
Thottea tomentosa (Blume) Ding Hou Aristalochiaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Northeast India,
Southeast Asia, Malesia
Syzygium andamanicum King (N. P.
Balakr.)
Myrtaceae Andaman Islands*
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Myrtaceae Andaman Islands , Western Ghats*
Syzygium megacarpum (Craib) Rathakr.
& N.C. Nair
Myrtaceae Andaman-Nicobar islands, Northeast India,
Malesia
Syzygium samarangense (Bl.) Merr. & Perry
Myrtaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Malesia
Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex
Hornem.) Honda
Poaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Eastwards to Southeast Asia
Vanilla albida Blume Orchidaceae Andaman – Nicobar Islands, Malesia
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight Rutaceae Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Indian Subcontinent,
Malesia

* *endemics

Development of MPCP

JNTBGRI in association with FRLHT developed a Medicinal Plant Conservation Plot (MPCP) which harbours many rare herbals.

Systematic Garden of Herbals

Systematic Garden of Herbals has been designed for attracting students to Plant Taxonomy. It also includes a collection of 244 RET species occurring in Peninsular India and Andaman Nicobar Islands.

Standardization of ad-hoc cultivation practices of herbals

Cultivation of medicinal plants can support both conservation and utilization of the resource species. It supports conservation of the species by reducing pressure of over exploitation of its remaining wild stands in the wilderness areas. Utilization of herbals has to be enhanced through cultivation by ensuring availability of good quality raw drug produce of required quality/ quantity to the end user. The advantages of cultivation of medicinal plants compared to their collection from the wild source are many.

The PGR division of JNTBGRI has standardized ad-hoc cultivation practices of about 15 medicinal plant species of Kerala. The division has also conducted documentation on propagation techniques of 300 medicinal plant species as a part of National Workshop on Propagation of Medicinal plants and conduct training programmes on cultivation of medicinal plants for farmers.

Biosystematic Studies on Centella asiatica

Sixty accessions of Centella asiatica collected from different parts of Peninsular India and Andaman Islands were subjected to biosystematics studies. The study revealed that the accessions vary in morphological, karyomorphological, phytochemical and molecular aspects. They showed variation in the percentage of asiaticoside ( 0 – 1.73%) and madecassoside – the bioactive compounds present in species. The plant materials subjected to chemical analyses were collected from the second generation vegetatively propagated progenies of the accessions maintained in the Field Gene Bank, after growing them in same environmental conditions to nullify the influence of the environment. Therefore, it is inferred that variation in morphology and percentage of chemical constituents, exhibited by the accessions are due to difference in their genotypes. The study showed that there is significant variation in the contents of bio-active constituents – asiaticoside (0.00 – 1.73%) and madecassoside (0.32 – 2.76%) in the accessions.

Studies on the wild Piper nigrum gene pool

The studies at JNTBGRI on Piper nigrum have revealed the occurrence of a unique lemony-scented genotype of ‘Black pepper’ in the Western Ghats region of Kerala. The genotype is named as Piper nigrum L. ‘PMM’. Chemical analyses of volatile oils of leaves/fruits and ‘piperine’ content of the fruits of the genotype were carried out. The study showed that Piper nigrum L. ‘PMM’ differs markedly from the rest of the genotypes of the species, the fruits of which contain three times higher oil content and two times higher piperine content compared to the popular cultivars of the crop. The leaves of this unique genotype contain more percentage of aroma chemicals than present in other genotypes. Due to the unique lemony scent of the genotype and presence of significantly high percentage of useful compounds Piper nigrum L. ‘PMM’ is considered as a potential genotype of the species, especially in the context of genetic improvement of ‘Black Pepper’, especially with respect to the quality of the produce.

Studies on Gingers

Developed a living collection of Zingiberaceae / Costaceae members comprising 70 species and 5 varieties belonging to 13 genera. Chemical constituents of 35 species were so far analyzed. Morphological and chemical characterization of selected species is in progress.

Training Programmes

The PGR division conducted many training programmes for various target groups on conservation of medicinal plants.

Supply of Planting materials of Herbals

This division has taken care of supplying planting materials of medicinal plants to public / organization, as a part of popularizing herbals. Plant materials were also supplied for research purpose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                       

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